It is quite easy nowadays to get your web site indexed by Google by signing up to Google Webmasters and submitting an XML sitemap. Within a day or two Google will have indexed your pages, or at least some of your pages. Within a week or two you will have data in webmasters but you probably few click through.
Web site age is an important factor in ranking and even if you spend time adding quality text to your pages, creating high quality links and so on, a new web site will still not appear very highly for a while. All you can really do is just be patient but constantly try to improve and adjust your page content.
Google Webmasters can show you a list of your pages that have page impressions for a particular keyword phrase. You can use this tool as a way of monitoring your sites status, make adjustments to page title and text and see what changes they make.
I have to say this process is extremely time consuming and tedious, keeping track of changes you have made is not easy but I guess that is what makes the difference between a site that has good page authority and one that does not.
If you have any comments on your experiences then let me know.